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Team makes fuel from food waste

A group of mechanical and civil and environmental engineering students at Virginia Tech are converting leftover food waste to produce electricity through a biogas generator as part of a senior design capstone project.

A computer design model of the three-ton, trailer-mounted vehicle helped engineering students lay out the various components necessary for the system. The vehicle was built in work space provided by the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

The students use waste from Turner Place at Lavery Hall, a campus dining hall, to fuel the generator that produces enough electricity to power a typical home. As a target, the team set out to design and build a generator that would generate 1 kilowatt of power with a methane content of 50 percent. The end result generates nearly 5 kilowatts with a methane content of more than 60 percent.

The biogas generator student team is one of 50 teams that will display during the Senior Design Expo on April 28, from 1-3:30 p.m. in the indoor practice facility near Lane Stadium. The expo is open to the public.

“When used at scale, a process like this does several things,” said Steven Cox, an advisor to the team and president of GkW Energy, which sponsored the team. “First, it reduces the amount of product going into landfills, which the university pays for by the pound. Second, it means we aren’t shipping that product 75 miles and then returning 75 miles with compost, so it saves more money and lowers our carbon footprint by limiting mileage in large trucks.”

The sustainable machine uses methane instead of gasoline and weighs more than 6,000 pounds. The generator is positioned on a 22-foot-long flatbed trailer with a 1,000-gallon anaerobic reactor and has two flexible gas holders that gather methane gas.

“Seed” fluid from an operating industrial anaerobic reactor works to jump-start the reactor. The fluid contains anaerobic bacteria that breaks down or digests food waste to create methane, which is captured and stored in gas holders on a frame mounted to the trailer. The methane is then used to power an electric generator. A series of standard electrical outlets is mounted on the trailer for demonstration purposes and includes standard 120v outlets, as well as a 240v outlet used to run heavier appliances, such as clothes dryers. By using methane generated from the waste, the small power plant produces enough power to run several homes.

The relatively small system can be up-scaled for use on small farms or other facilities where a significant amount of food or organic waste is generated. As a side benefit, the nutrient-rich product created by the system can be taken from the reactor and used as fertilizer that can be applied to crops and gardens without the odor normally associated with non-neutralized liquid manures.

The team of eight mechanical engineering and one civil engineering seniors spent a semester designing a system that would meet the conditions of the Commonwealth Research Commercialization Fund set forth by the industry sponsor GkW Energy. About 20 percent of the 50 senior design teams that will display their projects at the expo have industry sponsorship.

The team is advised by Cox, research associate in the Charles E. Via Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Robin Ott, associate professor of practice in mechanical engineering; and Clara Eichler, research associate of civil and environmental engineering.

Source: VirginiaTech

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